Vaccines for coronavirus, and where did it come from?

9 April, 2020

Two interesting COVID-19 items from reputable sources today:

The state of COVID-19 vaccines now: As of yesterday (8 April 2020), there are 78 confirmed COVID-19 vaccine candidates, 5 of which have already entered clinical trials. There is a short, data-driven overview by seven experts at the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), one of the world’s leading vaccine funders in the Nature Reviews Drug Discovery (free at

Where did COVID-19 come from? Scientists agree that the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 was very likely to have originated in bats. Other than that, there are few certainties about how the virus jumped to humans. Pangolins have been suggested as the possible intermediary, but that’s still unproven. It’s also not firmly established that the ground zero of the outbreak was definitely a live-animal food market in Wuhan, China. (in The Guardian at

Chris Zielinski

Blogs: and

Research publications:

HIFA profile: Chris Zielinski: As a Visiting Fellow in the Centre for Global Health, Chris leads the Partnerships in Health Information (Phi) programme at the University of Winchester. Formerly an NGO, Phi supports knowledge development and brokers healthcare information exchanges of all kinds. Chris has held senior positions in publishing and knowledge management with WHO in Brazzaville, Geneva, Cairo and New Delhi, with FAO in Rome, ILO in Geneva, and UNIDO in Vienna. Chris also spent three years in London as Chief Executive of the Authors Licensing and Collecting Society. He was the founder of the ExtraMED project (Third World biomedical journals on CD-ROM), and managed the Gates Foundation-supported Health Information Resource Centres project. He served on WHO’s Ethical Review Committee, and was an originator of the African Health Observatory. Chris has been a director of the World Association of Medical Editors, UK Copyright Licensing Agency, Educational Recording Agency, and International Association of Audiovisual Writers and Directors. He has served on the boards of several NGOs and ethics groupings (information and computer ethics and bioethics). UK-based, he is also building houses in Zambia. chris AT

His publications are at and and his blogs are and