Going forward, interdependence is a higher value of effective people than independence. As boys become adult learning (sex with another is considered "adult") they need access to the same educational tools, information and conversations at the same time as girls using the same materials supplied by a trusted source. Boys' attitudes might be studied too? Sex is a relationship of reciprocity between two people not just one. Relationships that work are based on trust. And can a girl trust an emotionally less mature less experienced less educated male partner? Syephen Covey's "Seven habits of effective people" has a first and major habit "interdependence is a higher value than independence":
The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People
“Interdependence is a higher value than independence”
1) Be proactive
2) Begin with the end in mind
3) Put first things first
4) Think win/win
5) Seek first to understand, then to be understood
7) Balanced self renewal
University of Oxford Department of educational studies
Principles and methods of adult learning
“Adult learning” is best understood not as a set of principles about what should happen, but as a set of descriptive generalisations about what does happen, whether we like it or not, together with some tentative suggestions about how such learning can be facilitated.
Self-Concept. When a person begins to see himself not as primarily as a learner, but as an actor or doer in the world,(s)he acquires a new status in others’ eyes but especially in his or her own eyes, and belief in self as a self-directing personality. The adult has a need to be treated as autonomous and worthy of respect. At the same time, most adults are not accustomed to directing their own learning in any systematic or disciplined way. They need to take responsibility for their learning; and having done so, frequently achieve great satisfaction from self-directed learning.
Possible implications. Need for spirit of mutual respect between student and student, and appreciation of each other as people and colleagues; need for student to diagnose her own needs; joint planning of objectives to be obtained and of learning experiences to attain these; learning process also a collaborative enterprise; evaluation of learning by student.
Reservoir of experience. The adult learner has had a great deal of experience with which any new experience can be compared and in relation to which any new experience will be understood. The adult tends to view and value himself or herself as a product of past experience, and therefore values that experience and is likely to feel unfairly humiliated by tasks which reject the relevance of that experience. Correspondingly, the adult tends to have established habits and patterns of thought which are not easily changed.
Possible implications. Effective teaching methods are likely to be those that encourage the use of, and reflection upon, the experiences that an adult perceives to be relevant; new ideas should be exemplified in terms of adult learners’ past experiences; adult learners need to recognise the way in which their thinking is bound by their new situations. Just as each individual is likely to have a different pattern of relevant experience, so their concerns and what they can bring to them are likely to be unique to each individual.
Role of orientation in learning. Whereas children are motivated to learn by the opportunities for growth into general new understandings and for mastery of general new skills, adults tend to be most motivated by the need to meet the demands of new roles.
Possible implications. The learning tasks that adults are asked to undertake should be directly related to the roles they are currently, or in the near future, being asked to fulfil. The performance of role models, especially when these are in realistic situations, are likely to be especially influential, although observation is likely to be of limited value without subsequent explanation of the significance of the model’s actions. Such modelling should be resented as offering additions to existing repertoires rather than as sufficient for automatic imitation. Practice in the role. And feedback on it, are other especially appropriate learning procedures.
Immediacy of application. Adults generally learn not in preparation for some distant future but in order to meet present needs. They tend therefore to learn not according to the discipline of subjects but rather according to their problem-solving needs.
Possible implications. The educator’s chance to influence the adult learner is by offering information of the kind that the learner needs to solve his or her problems. The information needed may be of many diverse kinds, will vary according to the distinctive learner. And will at best be assimilated to established ways of thinking, or modifying these, rather than replacing them.
HIFA profile: Richard Fitton is a retired family doctor - GP, British Medical Association. Professional interests: Health literacy, patient partnership of trust and implementation of healthcare with professionals, family and public involvement in the prevention of modern lifestyle diseases, patients using access to professional records to overcome confidentiality barriers to care, patients as part of the policing of the use of their patient data.
Email address: richardpeterfitton7 AT gmail.com