thanks for formulating very specific questions.
I have found a recent research from Europe - though it is about open access awareness in the European universities, I think it shows the trend and suggests some solutions.
2017-2018 EUA Open Access Survey Results. The analysis in this report is based on the responses of 321 institutions from 36 European countries. The European University Association (EUA). April 2019
Key results regarding Open Access to research publications
- 62% of the institutions surveyed have an Open Access policy on research publications in place and 26% are in the process of drafting one.
- At institutions with an OA policy in place:
-- Almost 50% require publications to be self-archived in the repository
-- 60% recommend that researchers publish in OA
-- 74% do not include any provisions linking Open Access to research evaluation. Only 12% have mandatory guidelines linking OA to internal research assessment.
- Despite the fact that most surveyed institutions have implemented an Open Access policy for research publications, 73% had not defined specific Open Access targets or timelines.
- 70% of these institutions monitor deposits in the repository. However, only 40% monitor Open Access publishing and only 30% monitor related costs (gold OA).
- Librarians are most knowledgeable about and most committed to (~80%) Open Access (publishers’ policies, H2020 rules) followed by institutional leadership (~50%). For researchers, including early-stage researchers, the figure drops to ~20%.
- Raising awareness and developing additional incentives for researchers to make their work available via Open Access are top priorities.
Drivers of and barriers to researcher self-archiving
"In order to encourage researchers to deposit their publications in the institutional repository or to publish in Open Access journals, most institutions report trying to facilitate administrative reporting of publications in projects and provide financial support for Open Access publishing. The Other category includes a variety of situations, such as awareness raising and training activities, copyright advice, increasing visibility of researchers’ publications on campus and online. However, many institutions also indicated not providing any type of incentive for their researchers to publish Open Access or to deposit their publications in the repository. Most institutions considered concerns over publishers’ copyright infringement to be researchers’ main concern (32%) about self-archiving publications in a repository, followed by the lack of administrative support and concerns over the quality of Open Access publications, (which both scored 25%).
PRIORITY AREAS FOR PROMOTING OPEN ACCESS TO RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS
"Institutions were asked to prioritise different actions to promote Open Access to research publications. Raising awareness about Open Access, developing incentives for researchers and suitable national regulatory frameworks were
the three most important actions to facilitate Open Access identified by 79-85% of universities.
- Development of additional incentives for researchers to publish their papers Open Access;
- Legal frameworks requiring transparency of contracts and prices with publishers;
- Sharing examples of good practice in developing and implementing institutional Open Access policies;
- Facilitate Open Access through suitable national legislative frameworks;
- Guidelines providing clarification of legal issues related to linking, sharing and re-using Open Access content;
- Coordinated negotiations with publishers to achieve better contractual conditions;
- Support for creation and/or development of e-infrastructures."
"The results of the current survey have also shown that European universities seldom monitor their Open Access activity, namely: publication in Open Access journals, and its related costs, for example, article processing charges (APCs) and page fees. Related EUA work, specifically the most recent results of the Big Deals Survey, have shown that more than 1 billion Euro is spent every year across Europe in electronic resources, of which more than 700 million Euro is spent on periodicals alone. Universities cover about 72% of these costs. These conservative figures demonstrate the magnitude of university spending on big deals with scientific publishers. Considering the weak monitoring mechanisms at many universities across Europe, the need for more transparency over publishing costs and better monitoring instruments at institutional, consortia and national levels is clear."
HIFA profile: Irina Ibraghimova is a medical librarian, based in Croatia, and works with health care professionals in the countries of the Former Soviet Union, Central and Eastern Europe, and Africa. Her interests include evidence-based practice (both in health care and in library/informatics field). www.lrcnetwork.org www.healthconnect-intl.org
ibra AT zadar.net