Two more papers from the UK, trying to find some answers to those questions
Boulding H, Kamenetzky A, Ghiga I, Ioppolo B, Herrera F, Parks S, Manville C, Guthrie S, Hinrichs-Krapels S. Mechanisms and pathways to impact in public health research: a preliminary analysis of research funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR). BMC Med Res Methodol. 2020 Feb 19;20(1):34. doi: 10.1186/s12874-020-0905-7. PMID: 32075580; PMCID: PMC7031933.
[ https://bmcmedresmethodol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12874-020-... ]
Lakin K, Meadmore K, Recio Saucedo A, Baker G, Worswick L, Thomas S. Researchers' perspective of real-world impact from UK public health research: A qualitative study. PLoS One. 2022 Jun 27;17(6):e0268675. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0268675. PMID: 35759461; PMCID: PMC9236254.
[ https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0268675 ]
It looks like researches in the UK are required to plan the impact of their research, but it is realistic only when it is planned together with policymakers.
HIFA profile: Irina Ibraghimova is an independent consultant with a PhD. in library sciences and more than 20 years’ international experience in ICT for health projects. She now serves as a Co-editor for the International Journal of Health Governance (Emerald Publishing). Professional interests: Information and health literacy, evidence-based practice, science communication and medical journals editing. http://www.healthconnect-intl.org/ She is a HIFA country representative for Croatia: https://www.hifa.org/support/members/irina