This is one of the most important topic which has not been highlighted enough at the community settings and health providers working at the grass root level.
Even though as medical and nursing students all have been taught but later in practice things change due to various reasons.
From my experience in LMICs to date (surprisingly it has not changed in past decades even with the costly newer antibiotics) :
antibiotics without prescription are freely available over the counter and patients take it for as many days as they think appropriate.
antibiotic treatment (often not required) is given intravenously even if the patient can take orally.
antibiotics are used as first line of treatment for any fever (without any lab test and commonly with a positive Widal test for typhoid etc.).
patients sometimes demand the doctor to prescribe antibiotics (general practice) in LMICs.
Therefore a lot needs to be done in terms of ‘ Awareness’ and ‘Education’ (like any public health prevention) utilising digital technologies, starting at the community level and health providers in the field.
Dr Meena Nathan Cherian, MBBS, MD (Anaesthesia)
Former WHO Lead Emergency and Essential Surgical Care Program, Geneva, Switzerland.
Senior Advisor, Global Action, International Society of Geriatric Oncology (SIOG), Switzerland. www.siog.org
Director, Global Health New Challenges:online courses, Geneva Foundation for Medical Education & Research (GFMER), Switzerland. www.gfmer.ch/surgery/cancer.htm
WHO-HIFA Working Group on Essential Health Services and COVID-19 www.hifa.org
World Health Network ZEROCOVID, Global Summit Team. www.worldhealthnetwork.global/summit-info
Geneva, Switzerland. +41 763837253(m); email@example.com
HIFA profile: Meena Cherian is Director, Emergency & Surgical Care program, Geneva Foundation of Medical Education and Research, Geneva, Switzerland. She is a member of the HIFA working group on Essential Health Services and COVID-19. https://www.hifa.org/support/members/meena
www.gfmer.ch cherianm15 AT gmail.com